The study investigated the causes and effects of poor nutrition among children under the age of 15 years: A case study of Egor local government area of Edo state, Nigeria. This study used survey design to find out the causes and effects of poor nutrition on children and simple random sampling was used to select the sample. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaires; the questionnaires were developed based on the objectives of the research work experienced. The result showed that the level of education of parents are not adequate 35 (17.5% ) malnourishment of children in the area ranked second 25 (12.5%) followed by lack of adequate education of parents affects the nutrition of their children 120 60%) therefore level of education of parents contribute to poor nutrition of their children it can be seen that poor nutrition reduces the intelligence of children under the age of 15 years The children were not eating balanced Diet 84 (42%) was the highest problem associated with poor nutrition which lead to poor academic performance of children 68 (34%) also some children in the area are not even going to school 28 (14%) and the wisdom of children were too poor 20 (10%).The Medical staff in the location always create awareness on the importance of good nutrition 150 (75%) while 50 (25%) agreed that Poverty is the major cause of poor nutrition. Poor nutrition among children is a major public health problem, it is a critical problem because its effects are long lasting and go beyond childhood. It has both short and long term consequences.
1.2 Theoretical Framework 1.3 The Statement of Problem
1.4 Purpose of the Research
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Significant of the study
1.7 Limitations of the study
1.8 Scope of the study
1.9 Operational definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Poor nutrition at different ages
2.2 Unborn and newborn babies
2.3 Low birth weight
2.4 Infants and young children
2.5 Inadequate breastfeeding means
2.6 School-age children and youths
2.7 Babies aged 0 – 6 months
2.8 Children aged 6 months to 5 years
2. 9 School-age children
2.1.0 Benefits of Healthy Eating
2.1.1 Consequences of a Poor Diet
2.1.2 Eating Behaviors of Young People
2.1.3 Measures for detecting poor nutrition
2.1.4 Effects later in life
2.1.5 Causes of poor nutrition
2.1.6 Inadequate food intake
2.1.9 Under nutrition, hunger
2.2.1 Social inequality
2.2.3 Maternal factors
2.2.5 Treatment of poor nutrition
2.2.7 Low blood sugar
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of study
3.4 Sampling Procedure
3.6 Data Collection
3.7 Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
4.2 Discussion of Results
4.3 Summary of findings
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Implication of the study
5.4 Suggestion for further studies
1.1 Theoretical framework
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism (Amsalu, 2008). It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses.
In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, anemia, scurvy, preterm birth, stillbirth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis (Bloss et al., 2004). Poor nutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, and the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition.
Poor nutrition in children is common globally and may result in both short and long term irreversible negative health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide, about 1 million children. Another estimate also by WHO states that childhood underweight is the cause for about 35% of all deaths of children under the age of five years worldwide.
The main causes are unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene, factors related to society and poverty, diseases, maternal factors, gender issues and overall poverty. Poor nutrition occurs when people do not eat (or absorb) enough nutrients to cover their needs for energy and growth, or to maintain a healthy immune system (Chinedu, 2018) . Micronutrient deficiencies are a sub-category of undernutrition and occur when the body lacks one or more micronutrients (e.g. iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A or folate). These deficiencies usually affect growth and immunity but some cause specific clinical conditions such as anaemia (iron deficiency), hypothyroidism (iodine deficiency) or xerophthalmia (vitamin A deficiency).
1.3 Statement Of Problem
Poor nutrition in children is a common global problem and may result in both short and long term irreversible negative health outcomes, it normally affect children because they are in a period of rapid growth that increases the demand for calories and proteins. In recent times poor nutrition causes a variety of different health problems in both adults and children. Poor nutrition can result from failure to eat enough or failure to choose the right kinds of foods it is in view of making recommendations on amounts to consume from each food groups to attain proper nutrition
1.4 Purpose of the study
To investigate the effect and causes of poor nutrition among children under the age of 15 years: A case study of Egor local government area of Edo state.
1.5 Research questions
1. Does level of education of parents contribute to poor nutrition in children.
2. Do you know that poor nutrition reduces the intelligence of children under the age of 15 years.
3. Do you know that poor nutrition can lead to death of a child and also exposes children to some diseases.
4. Does good nutrition and proper feeding of children under the age of 15years , important in developing children intellectual.
5. Do you know that poverty and social economic status of parents are the major causes of poor nutrition in children under the age of 15 years.
1.6 Significance of the study
The significance of the study is to create awareness on the devastating effects of poor nutrition on children under the age of 15 years and to educate parents on the control and elimination of poor nutrition on children.
1.7 Limitations of the study
In carrying out this research, the researcher experienced some set backs and some cases were crippled by many factors, some of which are:
1. Time factor.
2. The geographical area to cover from the research which is practically too much.
3. Financial constraint – this was the major constraint basically in this work , because of the economic depression in the country.
1.8 Scope of the study
The scope of the study will cover the problems caused by poor nutrition on children. The study will reach some women and young children under the age of 15 years old (both primary and post primary school children).
1.9 Operational definition of terms
· Malnutrition: lack of adequate nourishment.
· Balanced diet: a diet consisting of suitable proportions of foods from all clases of food.
· Marasmus: any wasting disease, especially a severe loss of body weight in children, caused by malnutrition or the inability to digest protein.
· Calorific value: the amount of energy produced by the compete combustion of a material or fuel measured in units of energy per amount of material eg kJ/kg.
· Overnutrition: a form of malnutrition in which nutrients are oversupplied relative to the amounts required for normal growth, development and metabolism.
· Undernutrition: inadequate nutrition , either due to a lack of food, or to the inability of the body to absorb its nutrients.
· Absorption: the process by which the materials of growth and nutrition are absorbed and conveyed to the tissues and organs, taking in by various means, such as by osmosis.
· Assimilation : the metabolic conversion of nutrients into tissues.
· Biosynthesis: the synthesis of organic compounds within a living organism, especially the synthesis of large compounds from small ones.
· Catabolism: the release of energy and breakdown of materials.
· Excretion: the process of removing or ejecting materials that has no further utility especially from the body, the act of excreting.