The generation and disposal of waste is an interesting part of any developing country or industrial society. Studies have shown that the volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individual and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment. Past and present administrations in Delta state have made several attempts to address the problems of waste management in the state. The establishment of Delta State Waste Management Authority (DSWAMA), in 2004, has not significantly addressed the menace of waste disposal as heaps of refuses are still seen all over the state on daily basis. Inadequate funding, incompetent staff, people’s attitudes and ineffective monitoring/ control mechanism are variables posing challenges to DSWAMA and as such, prompted this research. The study investigated the extent to which fund affects the efficiency of DSWAMA and the professional training status of staff of DSWAMA. We also verified the impact of people’s attitudes towards DSWAMA’s mandate as well as the impact of monitoring and control on the management of waste in Asaba metropolis. Primary and Secondary sources of data collection were employed using the simple percentage and chi square analytical tools. The study hinged its theoretical framework on the functional structural theory. Increment of the supplementary funds allocated to DSWAMA, regularization and staff wider participation in the training packages, merit and transparency in the recruitment exercises, among others, were recommended.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Aim of the study
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of problem
1.6 Significant of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
2.1 The concept of waste
2.2 Waste management
2.3 Methods of Waste Disposal
2.4 Waste management in Nigeria
2.5 Integrated Waste Management Facility at Asaba
2.6 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
3.5 Validity of the Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Data collection procedure
3.8 Method of data Analysis
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of personal Data of Respondents
4.3 Test of Hypothesis
4.6 Implications of Results and findings
1.1 Background of the study.
The environmental public health has become a prominent, but complex and multidimensional issue on the public policy agenda of the states and international organizations. This transformation after a long period of being neglected began in Rio in the year 1992.
The environmental issues is today perceived not simply as a narrow ecological problem of how to ensure a symbiotic and congruent interface between man and the environment. It’s intercourse has political, psychological, developmental, sociological and scientific ramification, all of these are anchored to the new concept.
The metaphor sustainable development emanated from the report titled “Our common future” prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). This report, also is known as Brundland Report, recogazied that many developmental activities in many nations especially in developing countries, were living growing numbers of people poor and vulnerable, while at the same time degrading their environment. The report then concluded that a new path for development should be implemented to sustain human progress not just in a few places for few years but globally in the future. This conclusion led the report to focus on issues such as, population, energy, industry, human settlement and quality of life
Throughout history, the environment and natural resources have played a defining role in social, political, and economic transformations. They have also been a major contention in charactersing African as a continent. The environment has been at the receiving end and overburdened with aftermath of the excesses of humans in their struggle for survival. Environment is a complex weave of physical, chemical and biotic factors that interact with each other and the impact on living things and their surroundings. A new climate change strategy,which support the capacity of developing countries to make information of greenhouse gas emission,as well as reduces poverty and accelerates the achievement of the MDGS was endorsed(UNDP,2008). Environment is the source of global economy that must be protected and managed sustainably. All efforts directed at managing and administering the environment is to ensure the continued existence of the biological diversity entities on the earth ofwhich humans are the prime species and without it, humans cannot exist (Aluko, 2004).
Nigeria is a country with productive and diverse ecosystem including mangroves, rainforest, savanna as well as wetlands. , the study area is the capital of Delta State in Nigeria, with area coverage of about 762km2(294sqmi). The population of the area is estimated at 4.112.445millon. The area is an important industrial and commercial center with a number of flourishing industries such as Eastern Metal Limited, Trash Globalmultiservice Limited (TGMSL), Twin angel’s chemicals& Allied production E.T.C. The presence of potentail energy from oil and natural gas has been made to become one of the most important industrial cities in Nigeria Lies along Edo State from the North, Anambra State from the east Imo, and Southeast by Bayelsa State and on the Southern Flank is height of Benin which covers about 160 kilometers of the state’s coastline. Ondo to the North weast.
The Niger Delta area is the hardest hit of environmental destruction arising from oil production.Metropolis in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is the fourth largest urban center of the country. It possesses substantial natural resources prominent among which are major oil and gas deposits in the Niger Delta region of the country, a variety of solid minerals, good agricultural land and water resources, a large labor force and a vibrant private sector. Average daily waste (refuse) generated in ranged for about 4.892 million tons. The agency in charge with the responsibility of solid waste management is private sector participants (PSPs). The agency created refuse collection centers/points within the metropolis & evacuate it to designated government approved dumpsites. Composition of waste generated include, Garbage (41%), paper and plastics (35%) scrap metal and glass (15%), construction waste (4%), sludge (3%) and expired chemical wastes and drugs (2%) (DSESA 2005).
The Niger Delta environment, as a resources and a system, is threatened. Unsuitable large –scale exploitation of ecosystems for strictly economic ends is resulting to disastrous outcomes in which the environment and agricultural productivity is degraded and the benefit proves illusory (Opera, 2003).
The most serious of our environmental problems can be found in the Niger – Delta where, as a result of exploration and exploitation of petroleum oil and gas, the surrounding area have been adversely polluted (Babalola, 1985, Onu and Opara 2001, Opara 2008 b). Apart from the problems associated with oil spills,there is a problem of gas flaring. Nigeria currently flares 53% of the gas produced and responsible for 28% of the gas being flared in the world (Okebukola, 2001).
Nigerians and the Nigerian environment as a result of gas flaring and oil spills have suffered from acid rain, desertification, chronic health problems, greenhouse effect and depletion of Ozone layer. E.T.C. (Nosike and Opara, 2003). The trends of environmenta abuse in the country suggest that humans are probably heading towards ecological destruction.
1.2 Statement of Problem.
Ethically, the beauty of any environment lies on it’s good sanitary condition. This is so because, when an environment is clear the lives of citizens are not threatened by illness and diseases. Proper refuse disposal management involves the dumping of waste (solid, liquid or gaseous) from our homes, industries and public outfits for examples hotels, hospitals and school etc. at a specific place or in government provided containers and the control and removal of refuse from places when they can cause hazards to a places where they are less hazardous to public health.
i. Asaba metropolis presents a ghastly picture, the neglect of filled refuse bins in recent time has it effect on the inhabitants. Many areas around the homes are littered with domestic refuse sewage waste, garbage & other waste from industrial operations. Industrial operations are characterized by the general of large volume of waste in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Some of these waste are toxic with negative impacts on our environment, land, water and air.
ii. To ensure a clean and safe environment, the Delta state government established private sector participants (PSPs) to monitor the environmental quality and to ensure a refuse-free environment. However, despite the Government efforts at making the environment clean in Asaba metropolis, people seem to be careless about their environment. Despite the provision of refuse receptacles by the government, many people still prefer dumping refuse at places they considered convenient to them. People seem not to aware of the of dirty environmental diseases. Victims of environmental related disease like malaria, fever, typhoid fever, dysentery and others seem to be on the increase. Indiscriminate refuse dump affects quality of water and air of which the people seem not to be aware. Public educational programmes that enlighten the public on health implications of indiscriminate refuse dumps are almost non-existent. Mass media seem not to be doing enough to create awareness about implications of indiscriminate refuse dump. It was against this background that the researcher embarked on this research to appraise the public health awareness of health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump in Asaba Metropolis.
The aim of this research which is to review the environmental public health implication of indiscriminate waste disposal and it’s psychological undertone as well as suggested ways of tackling the problems adequately. Indeed, indiscriminate refuse dumping has become a common feature of most African towns and cities since the recent past. Inhabitants in the urban areas tend to dump refuse (waste) as if it has no implication on their community health and social welfare. Inadequatemanagement of waste, besides rood side, drains bank of streams and in public places causes environmental health risk on human populations, it’s also capable of inflicting permanent damage on the ecological system considering the magnitude of waste released daily into the environment and the fact that they appears to be no serious organized programme for the efficient management and disposal of these waste, in spite of their environmental effects on human health, there is need for an understanding of the dynamics that are essential for the explanation of the trends and emerging diseases epidemics on the human environment. To help individuals and groups to acquire an awareness of the total environment and it’s problems is one of the six cardinal objectives of environmental education. People need to be aware of the implications of their actions on the environment,most especially as it affects their health. Thousands of lives are lost every year due to environment related diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, malaria fever, typhoid fever, river blindness and so on.
The air, which is an unavoidable source of life, has been polluted with chemicals, pathogens or offensiveodour.
Seepage from refuse dumps often pollutes the underground and surface water. The environment is “Sick” and sickness are less than natural but effect of human activities many internationalconferences, workshop, seminars have been healed on the impact of the degraded environment human beings and the need to promote environmental quality. It is known fact that that human health isunforeseen among other things, on the quality of air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink and the environment in which we live. Indeed Nigeria is not left out among the committee of nations that are showing great concern on environmental matters. In 1984, there was an introduction of monthly environmental sanitation ensure clear environment. And people were compelled to clear their environment atleast once in a month. The exercise became part of Nigerians, as it was routinely observed. Thus government rose up to this challenge by setting up a board to handle waste sanitation matters. Solid waste management includes all the activities that seek to minimize the health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid waste (Buckle 2003 and smith).
Besides, one needs to understand weather the personnel involved in this business understand the principle and techniques of waste management. This is because, most times, while the personnel’s of the organization arecaring the waste to it destination a large proportion of this waste drops along the road thereby constituting nusance to the city. Also the trucks used by these organization are usually open carriage trucks which are supposed to be used for disposing waste. The personnel also appearto be at risk, as they do not follow the ethics of the waste disposal. All these therefore makes importance to appraise the board responsible for disposing waste in the city. Based on these development, it is necessary and important for one to be curious of how the people in government and the general populace are tackling the issue of waste management and disposal in Asaba metropolis. Waste from these population growth and technological development gradually constituted problems to the states. This is because the need to control and manage these waste became an issue that both the people at the helm government and citizen most tackle seriously. Citizen also appear to be making matters worse. Some of them still defecates or dump refuse on road side, seem even dump it near streams while others park waste in cellophane bags and drop it by the middle of the high ways common phenomenon to see refuse being dumped along the major roads in the state a behaviour turning the state to a refuse depot. This is an eye sore as these ugly mountains of waste around the metropolis may likely welcome any individual visiting . Furthermore, certain waste especially from chemicals if inhaled or touched can equally cause wide spread epidemics (Bartone, 2003 and Klunder, 2003). All these are pointers to the facts that a proper understanding of the disposal and management of waste becomes Imperative for this study. Metropolis for example has experienced flood, deaths and properties destruction due to these ugly incidents.
Negative change in the environment such as house no sanitation, air and water can lead to poor health. Harmful organisms take delight in heaps of refuses or dirty environments. Organic waste provide breeding grounds for micro-organisms and diseases bearing insects and indents, and where faucal materials makes waste the health dangers are complicated (Okebuola, 2004).Similarly,national planning commission (NPC) and United Nation Children Education Fund (UNCEF, 2006) assert that in most cities, the methods of decomposing rubbish provide breeding grounds for rats, flies, mosquitoes, contributing to the unhealthy living environment. Microorganisms can be spread in the air, water, food and contact with people. It can even be through disease vectors. These organisms cause diseases that may have deadly consequence.
Is the capital of Delta State as well as it economic seat and it is densely populated because concentration of industries, government establishment, higher institution and other commercial activities. The town till today, is still experiencing influx of people from neighboring towns and states. Some analysts believed that massive movement have been devastating. This population explosion is however determinate to the environmental quality of city.
The essence of waste management is to maintain an acceptable environment (quality) sound public health, and creation of aestheticvalues, the behavioral pattern and awareness of the people indicates how the treat the environment and the solution to the problem of determinate refuses dump will be mirage. Awareness can be create through mass media. It could be through electronic media, print media or other traditional means of creating awareness. In order to protect human health and environment from the potential hazards arising frominappropriate waste disposal and it’s consequential environmental pollution, a systematically supervised and controlled management of the waste in a necessity through communication. Communication from the perspective of this study gas beyond the media provision of information by technical means (telephone, print, and electronic media). Communication as used in this study also includes a way of approaching and explanning processes in the society
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The major objectives of the study are,
i. To find outwhether the inhabitants of Asaba are aware of the implication ofindiscriminate waste disposal in their environment.
ii. To evaluate the level of efficiency in the control and management of urban waste in Asaba metropolis
iii. To investigate whether the techniques/methods used or proffered by government are adequately creating awareness about the health implications ofindiscriminate waste disposal in Asaba metropolis.
iv. To identify various ways the environmentalist\policy makers could help in changing human behavior and responses to environmental options that will promote waste management.
1.5 Research Questions
This study was designed to address the following questions
i. Do the inhabitants of AsabaMetropolis aware of the implications of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment?
ii. What is the level of efficiency ofAsaba metropolis urban waste control and management?
iii. Are the techniques used by government adequately creating awareness about the health implications of poor urban waste management in Asabametropolis?
iv. What ways could the environmentalist/policy makers help in changing humanbehavior and responses to environmental optionsthat will promote waste management?
1.6Significant of the Study.
The collection of refuse is irregular and inefficient inAsaba metropolis. Litter and refuse often accumulated along the road side and public places, creating breeding grounds for mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, androdent responsible for the spread of many diseases. The vehicles used where open trucks, which expose their putrefying load for all to see and smell as they move through thecity. Drains and rivers were choked with refuse and there was open burning of waste everywhere. The result reveals whether the public are aware of the health implications of indiscriminate refuse dumps. It also shows why the governmental efforts may not be enough in solving environmental problems and why individuals mustbe involved. Government at all levels are involved in refuse disposal. Local, states, and federal government each control a specific part ofthe process. Refusedisposal is generally seen as a municipalresponsibilitybecause of the landfill and cycling component. While that is generally true, the citizenship evokes love for the commitment to a state that is why it is expected of the citizenry to have a positive contribution to the development, progress andwellbeing of the communityin which they reside. Through this obligation is more or less moral attitudinal in outlook, but a clean environment will impact positivelyon socio-political economic wellbeing of the citizens.
The study will beutilized by the government at both federal and state levels through their various ministries like, ministry of environment, ministry of education, ministry of health and ministry of information. It will be beneficial for these ministries in the area of policy.
Formulation, most especially in the area of educating the public in schools and out-of-school. It will assist them when formulating law that will promote human health and protect the environment. The citizenry will also benefit greatly from this study, as the study will reveal how a person’s carefree attitude about the environment can be costly not only to himself but others. Non-governmental organization (NGO’s) in area of health and environment will also benefit. This study will guide them in the area of production and distribution of educational materials to the public.
The information will go a long way in helping the teachers, most especially adult education, environmental educator and health educators will also benefit from the study in such a way that it woul help them to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment to the public school. Media houses and others who are charged with the responsibilities of creating awareness will also benefit from the study. A workable solid waste management strategy for Asaba metropolis becomes dependent on a long term strategy for all citizens.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to the waste disposal management in Asaba metropolis. The study intends to investigate the people’s inabilitiesto maintain a sanitarian clean environment and to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment. The geographical scope of the study is Asaba metropolis in Delta State in (South. South) geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study covers some dirty areas and dumping site, which includes Osadebay way, Nnebisi road, Okpanam, Coker,Ibusa road.
1.8. Definition of Terms
Behavior change: Can refer to any transformation or modification of human character.
Communication: it is a way of approaching and explaining processes in society.
Environment: It is the total surroundings of human’s that support life.
Environmental Health: It refers to the health implications of the interaction between individuals and their natural and built environments.
Environmental Sanitation: This is an intervention to reduce people exposure to disease by providing a clean environment in which to live, with measures to break the cycle of diseases.
Health: It is a condition of the body, which makes a person to function effectively. It is the absence of sickness or stress of any form.
Public Health: It is the control of all those factors in human’s physical environment that exercise or may exercise, deleterious effects on their physical fitness, health or survival.
Responsible Environmental Behavior (REB): Are actions taken by individuals or a group of individuals to do what is right to protect the environment.
Waste:It is the leftovers, used products whether liquid or solid having no economic values which must be disposed or thrown away.
Waste management; is the act of maintaining acceptable environmental quality, sound public health and creation of aesthetic value.