TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6. SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
2.4 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 AREA OF THE STUDY
3.1 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
3.2. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.3. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
3.5 RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT
3.6. VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7. LIMITATION OF STUDY
3.8. SAMPLING PROCEDURE
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.7. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Illegal refuse dumping refers to the dumping of large items of rubbish in public areas such as roadsides or illegal landfills-private land where waste is dumped without councils or Environmental Protection Authority approval. Illegal dumping of waste is an environmental crime that is ongoing and highly visible problem in most developing countries (Environmental Protection Agency 2012). Illegal refuse dumping includes waste materials that have been dumped, tipped or otherwise deposited onto land where no license or approval exists to accept such waste. Illegal dumping varies from small bags or rubbish in an urban environment to larger scale dumping of waste materials in isolated areas such as bush land. When it rains, illegally dumped rubbish can impact proper drainage of run-off, making areas more susceptible to flooding when waste block ravines, creeks, culverts and drainage basins (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation www.nsw.gov.uk) It is estimated that there is currently approximately 98, 996, 672 tons of illegally dumped waste world-wide, Elizabeth (2012). The United States produces more solid waste than any other country. The Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) estimates that the average human has doubled how much garbage they produce per day since 1960 (Rea, 2005). In Nigeria, Illegal dumping of refuse is mostly found among the people living in the slums. These are the poor and ignorant group of people; they do not know the relevance of waste management and as a result engage in illegal dumping of refuse. Illegal dumping “hot-spot” often include roadways, bus lands, and multi-unit premises. Unsecured properties including undeveloped lots, abandoned structures and unused industrial facilities may also be converted into dump sites. Illegal dumping generally occurs on vacant or private properties including abandoned industrial, commercial or residential buildings. It frequently occurs at night or in early morning. Illegal dumping also occurs when exposed to industrial activity is released into the storm drainage system. Illegal dumping is generally more common in areas with more renters who have fewer stakes in the community and in areas with absentee property areas. An example is a huge dump site at peter ejim street , located inside B-bus stop ifite Awka. It was discovered that the owner of the plot of land do not have the money to develop the land because It's sloppy, swampy and gully erosion takes place during rainy season.He also lives far away from the land which was why people living around and even far turned that plot to a dumping site. Douglas (1992). Landfills are one of the common reasons for refuse dumping. Some materials are banned from landfills such as tires, appliances that contain Fire on and car batteries are also commonly dumped illegally other items include abandoned vehicle, construction and demolition waste, auto parts, furniture, yard waste, household trash and medical waste. Dumpers dispose refuse illegally when they want to avoid fee or find a waste depot that is enclosed or refuse to accept waste. The presence of illegal refuse attracts additional refuse. Osuntokun (1999). Illegal waste dumping can affect human health in multiple ways. When the site are easily accessible to people they can be at risk of injury from nails and sharp edges. Children can possibly become trapped inside of appliances. There is risk of being exposed to hazardous chemicals from toxic fluids or dust. Appliances built before 1979 can leak polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCBs). Which are linked to cancer, reproductive failure and hormone imbalances in animals and humans. Dump sites attract rodents, other animals and insects, infectious diseases can be spread this way especially through mosquitoes. Tires which are common items found at illegal waste sites, are ideal breeding grounds for mosquitoes since they can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water that collects inside them. Diseases such as encephalitis, dengue fever and yellow fever have been spread by mosquitoes breeding in waste tires. Mathew (1994).
The environmental impacts on illegal dumping are significant in every society. Dumped rubbish can leach contaminates into our bush land, harming our plants and animals and blighting our landscape. When it rains illegally dumped rubbish can impact proper drainage of run-off, making area more susceptible to flooding when wastes block ravines, creeks, culverts and drainage basins. Illegal dumping of wastes contaminates surface water and lease hazardous chemicals including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the air which can harm the ozone layer. Chemicals from households, commercial and industrial sources can contaminate wells and surface water which can affect lakes, streams and drinking water supplies. The waste impact proper drainage and make areas more susceptible to flooding. FEBA (1992). When illegal dumping takes place, the aesthetic value of local community is diminished, often resulting in reduced property price and loss of community pride. Illegal waste dumping incurs costs to individual, communities and government. The costs of cleaning up after waste dumping can be devastating for land owner or occupiers. Fotelink (2001).
1.8. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Illegal refuse dumping in the world at large has become a huge problem and a menace in the society today. International, National and Local waste management agencies have invested great effort in combating illegal refuse dumping in the society, but very little or no result have been achieved. Illegal dumping of refuse is found among all kind of environment, both in urban and rural areas. Its consequences cannot be over emphasized. Land, abandoned buildings and gullies have been converted into refuse dumps sites by dwellers. These activities have lead to environmental degradation, air pollution, land pollution and poor economic and social environment. People living close to illegal dump sites suffer as a result of these problems. With regards to all the above mentioned, the researcher was inspired to carry out an investigation on the causes and implications of illegal refuse dumping At Peter Ejim street B-bus stop off ifite Awka.
1.9. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the impact of illegal dumpsite on environmental quality in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study are;
1. To examine the need for eradication of illegal dumpsite in Nigeria communities.
2. To assess the level of environmental degradation caused by illegal dumpsite in Nigerian cities and towns.
3. To assess the relationship between illegal dumpsite and environmental quality in Nigeria.
4. To determine the need for ensuring environmental quality in Nigeria.
5. To recommend ways of improving environmental quality by ensuring adequate management of dumpsites in Nigeria.
1.10. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are the research questions that would guide this study;
1. What is the need for eradication of illegal dumpsite in Nigeria communities?
2. What is the level of environmental degradation caused by illegal dumpsite in Nigerian cities and towns?
3. What is the relationship between illegal dumpsite and environmental quality in Nigeria?
4. What is the need for ensuring environmental quality in Nigeria?
5. What is ways of improving environmental quality by ensuring adequate management of dumpsites in Nigeria.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. This study will educate the general public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of illegal dumpsites focusing on Nigeria with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with illegal dumpsites in Nigeria.
2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.6. SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study on the impact of illegal dumpsite on environmental quality will cover all issues related to illegal dumpsites and environmental management system in Nigeria. It will cover the attitude of Nigerians to illegal dumpsites, policies and regulatory framework.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher should simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down the time devoted for the research work.