The study is basically to examine online voting system in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka campus voting system for student union Government (SUG) as an improvement on the traditional paper voting. Worried by the frequent and debilitating incidences of electoral fraud and disenfranchisement of voters for unsubstantiated reasons, the study tended to investigate whether introduction of online voting can ensure credible voting process in Nigeria and hence, democracy. Hagen Martin theory of e-democracy was adopted as theoretical framework. Hagen construes e-democracy as a strategic tool tostrengthen democratic practices using the Information and Computer Technology (ICT).The Project Work is an attempt which made use ofthe popular Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) and personal interviews toelicit information from respondents and/or come up with a unique functional Online votingplatform. The secondary data were collected from journals, textbooks, internet materials andreview of previous research reports on related topics. It is my finding among others that online-voting will reduce incidences of election fraud especially in the areas of voting and counting of votes, and also the physically challenged qualified voters and citizens living and working abroad will have opportunity to cast their votes. The study concludes that Nigeria must cash in on flourishing ICT in order to fight endemic electoral irregularities in Nigeria through firm belief in, and avowed adoption of online voting system. The study recommended among others, institutionalization of legal frameworks and structures that will formidably support the practice of online voting in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Literature Review
2.2 Theoretical Consideration
2.3 Review of Voting Systems
2.3.1Voting as a Concept -
2.3.2 Characteristics of a Voting System
2.3.3 Current Day Voting System
2.3.4 Drawbacks of Manual Voting System
2.4 Overview of Online Voting System (OVS)
2.4.1The Good Side of Electronic Voting
2.4.2 Challenges Associated with Online Voting Systems
2.4.3 Use of Online Voting System in Europe
2.4.4 Efforts for a more Effective Online Voting System
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Methodology Adopted
3.1.1 SSADM Stages
3.1.2 Benefits of SSADM
3.1.3Justification for Using SSADM
3.2 Requirement Document
3.2.2 Corporate Affairs Commission
3.3 System Analysis
3.3.1 Analysis of the Existing System
3.3.2 Problems of the Existing System
3.3.3 Goals of the Proposed System
3.4 Design Specifications
3.4.1 Top-down Structure
3.4.2 OVS Database Environment
18.104.22.168 OVS Entities
3.5 System Architecture
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
4.1 System Software Requirements
4.2 System Hardware Requirements
4.3 Analysis of Modules
4.4 Activity Diagram
4.5 Database Design
4.6 Data Dictionary
4.7 Input Specification
4.8 Output Specification
4.9 Data Flow Diagram
4.10 Flowchart Design
4.11 User Interface Design
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of the Study
Web Design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modelling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via internet in the form of technologies (such as mark languages) suitable for interpretation and display by a web browser or other web-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs). It is the creation of digital environment that facilitate and encourage human activity; reflect or adapt to individual voice and content; and change gracefully over tie while always retaining their identity.
Terry, (2009). reported that a web service are gateway to the internet for many people, offering news, search functions, sports score, shopping and movies views.
The intent of web design is to create a website (a collection of electronic files residing on one or more web servers) that presents content (including interactive features or interfaces) to the end user in the form of web pages once requested. Such elements as text, forms, and bit-mapped images (GIFs, JPEGs, and PNGs) can be placed on the page using HTML, XHTML, or XML tags. Displaying more complex media (vector graphics, animations, videos, sounds) usually requires plug-ins such as Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. Plug-ins are also embedded into the web pages by using HTML or XHTML tags.
Student can access the internet from the webpage using web browser such as chrome, operamini, fire fox etc. The Google directory described the term web as where user receive information.
Deitel,(2008) describe that a web as a site can function as a point of accessing information from the world wide web and web preset information from the diverse source. There are several term in library and information science and indeed IT have their origins borrowed from other disciplines and website is one of such. It must be borne in mind that the web is a resource of the internet, and a tool to browse the internet is the first ever innovation that allows anyone to publish to a vast number of user via internet.
A web site in this context, is more than a gateway, it is a website in which users can locate all the web content commonly needed. (Andy, 2005). The website is a platform for organisations, universities, colleges, companies to leverage and for efficient communication and other in house operation.
A variety of useful information into a single, one-step webpage, helping the user to avoid being overwhelmed by info glut or feeling lost on the web. However the internet (internet gateway or libraries) are not focused on internet enterprise function, the reason why the organisation have a website according to (source) include: information customization, information personalization, efficiency in accessing information (work flow) link integrity issues that link work. The roles that a website supports people to facilitate their work on the web so as to advertise, socialise and gain information.
The term internet and world wide web (www) are often used in everyday speed without much distinction. However, the internet and the world wide web are not one the same. (Barara, & Norman 2001).The internet is a global data communication system.
Improvements in the various browsers compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance of XHTML and XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements. The latest standards and proposals aim at leading the various browsers’ ability to deliver a wide variety of media and accessibility options to the client possibly without employing plug-ins.
There are millions of computer users browsing the internet every day and each one is looking at a different size of monitor displaying in different resolution. How each person sees the graphics on your website varies depending on their screen and there are no uniform standards for making your site friendly to everyone.
Screen resolution refers to how many pixels your computer monitor will display, both vertically and horizontally. If you ever visited a website that did not fit your screen, making you scroll to the right to see the rest of the page, it was not entirely the designer’s fault. The website was just not created with your screen resolution.
Not too long ago, the most common computer monitor featured a resolution of 480 X 640. A number of people still surf the internet using this screen resolution, while today’s popular monitor use a 1024 X 768 screen resolution and most website are optimized to be viewed on these higher resolution screens. Those still using lower resolution displays will see website quite differently than those the site is designed for.
Today’s monitor offer computer users a choice of several screen resolutions, with the lowest resolution being 400 X 600. With some choices, it is often confusing for users to decide on the best settings, especially if they are not aware of the differences.
Visitors to your site that are using monitors with low screen resolution will usually not see your entire page on their screen. They will have to scroll horizontally to see the right side of your page. Those using a higher screen resolution than what your site is designed for may see a small, thin strip that can be rather frustrating.
Also among one of the problems encountered is the incapability of the browser window and viewing systems.
For example some viewing systems will have limited options of fonts. This means that any special font will have to be placed inside an image so that they are accessible to all users.
Another important constraint is the type of browser users that are used to view the page through. Different browsers interpret the display images and the HTML in a slightly different manner, which can lead to the picture being displayed incorrectly.
The main limitation is bandwidth, which mean how quickly information travels between the computer where your web site is located (your Web server), and the visitor’s computer. Even though 56.6kbps modems, and even 10Mbps cable modems are becoming more common, many people on the internet are still using 28.8kbps modems.
This means that the larger your Web pages are, the longer they take to download, and the less likely a visitor is to stick around to see them. One of the major tasks of a web site designer is to provide maximum content at a minimum file size. Graphics and animations are the big data-hogs. A screen sized photo in full colour can easily consume 2 megabytes of space, which would take a computer with a 28.8kbps modem about a half-hour to download.
With the revolution of World Wide Web (WWW), information could be accessed from one part of the globe to another.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every Organizations, schools, individuals, businesses are putting up their own websites. Having highlighted efficiency of the World Wide Web above, the researcher intends Putting up a web pages on tourism for it to be easily accessible all over the globe in just a few seconds.
Additional problems may occur with the high traffic that the servers will be experiencing. With a high traffic of users, the server could hang, thus compromising the success of the tourism website.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim of the study is to design and implement a tourism website.
The objectives of the study include:
1. To provide working models of sustainable e-tourism business solutions in action, and provide the local trade with resources to initiate both e-marketing and e-business.
2. To create opportunities for exposure and networking opportunities with international online intermediaries and technology providers.
3. To ensure equitable involvement of SMEs and community and eco-tourism projects in an e-tourist environment.
4. To provide direct support and training for integration of e-tourism solutions at both a public and private sector levels, combining international and local expertise.
1.4 Research Question
To emphasis on the study, the following research question can be use to throw more light on the study.
1. What is the work of hypertext transfer protocol?
2. What did HTML does on a website?
3. What are the relevant tools use in building a tourism website?
1.5 Significance of the Study
In this age of electronic commerce, career as a web designer can be a lucrative one. Demand of websites designers are at a constant rise as most of the businesses are attempting to initiate web presence. There are different website design companies that recruit talented and best of the breed web designers to facilitate their clients with appealing web portals, beautiful graphics and animated features. On the other hand, finding a cheap web designer is not at all a difficult task now, from the local community newspaper to yellow pages, several web design companies offer alluring options.
A good website designer needs to increase his skills and abilities to identify what the visitors want at a rapid pace. There are several vocational training programs for the web designers and these courses are generally tailored to provide a clear insight on the latest tools and technologies that are used in the market. There are innumerable web designing companies that offer cheap web design and it is also necessary for the web designers nowadays to keep the designing cost lower. So, it is really a tricky job to balance the quality and hours of work to create the end product, i. e the website at a competitive rate.
There remains different web development companies that can really help schools/institutions with effective solutions related to web presence. Self-study to identify proper web Development Company is essential. We must remember that any wrong selection of web Design Company can just be waste of money. Now more than a few web design companies are offering free domain name and e-mail identification. Having e-mail with proper domain name is lucrative. We present now one of the most essential things that determine future of any business.
1.6 Scope of the Study
1. To create a personal page for a tourism website.
2. To create a page for the company to advertise and promote product and service.
This study is limited to Green Lakes Peace Network online and does not provide an in-depth study of its activities and at the same time transform them into a global organization accessible to billions of internet users all over the world. The scope of the study are
1.7 Limitations of the Study
This research work was faced with a lot of difficulties. Time constraint was one of the limiting factors in carrying out this study.
Financial constraint also constituted in carrying out an in depth study of this project. Limitations to the extent to which data could be collected also constituted a problem.Irregularities in power supply also dealt harshly with the researcher