1.1 Background of the Study
Photography has been utilized across a wide range of print in newspapers, magazines and other forms of media such as in advertising and commercial, video and film-making, fine art photography, portraiture and journalistic form. Photography image plays a very significant role in our daily lives. It‟s apparent that photographic images are widely used as the main medium in presentation such as billboard advertisements, illustrated magazines, newspapers, television and also the Internet.
No branch of journalism requires so much knowledge and skill than picture reporting. The industrial revolution played a significant role in the development of press photography according to Gelnshain, (2002,p.12), the first book with lithographic illustration (pictures) appeared in 1840. The photographs were selected on the basis of the criteria of in testing subjects, which stabilizes presentation. After this pioneering indeed, two publications, London labour and the London poor, appeared in British critical study. the use of photographs as a graphical presentation started with books, according to Peter (2009.p,6) the application of this experience in periodical came; surprisingly fast in May, 1842. This was when Herbet founded the famous illustrated London news. The publication relied heavily on pictorial information.
According to Mustaffa (2011,p.97), every image delivers its message with different purposes such as to inform, educate, promote, entertain and persuade. Images are extensively deployed and employed for a variety of purposes and intended effects in a wide range of communication and leisure industries. Mustaffa also stated that the significance of photography has to be considered within two main stands. The first is the nature of photography as realistic forms of representation and the second is its representation that‟s similar to the linguistic analogy, with its own codes and conventions or as mirror representation or interpretation, in another words, the reproduction copying of object or character appears in the photograph represent reality (similar) and truly experience.
In winning the hearts of voters, photographic images are used as a technique of mass persuasion in any political campaigns, especially in print media such as newspapers, as it is one of the most popular methods used in delivering their agendas and also to catch the audience‟s attention. Photographic images that are displayed in newspapers can influence the audience's emotions more effectively apart from text materials that leave them in a more rational, logical and liner pathway of thought (Joffes, 2008). Elsewhere, Lester (2003,p.234) has his own view and he describes that visual images are a powerful form of communication as they stimulate both intellectual and emotional responses.
According to Anderson (2014,p.140) Photojournalism is an arm of journalism that uses images to tell stories and report events. It is different from other forms of photography such as commercial, Architecture and industrial photography. This could be seen in its adherence to certain journalism norms like News, Timeliness Objectivity, fairness and accurate representation of the events.
Photojournalism involves the use of camera to record events as they happen. Like a news reporter, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she writes with camera and disseminates news events through images. Photojournalists use pictures to tell stories interpret event and communicate their feelings about the society as Journalists hoping for a better society (Harding, 2012).
The advent of photographs mechanically printed into newspapers opened up market for press photography. Pictures were mostly taken for their action and content rather than any aesthetic consideration. Today, they are used in the newspapers for different reasons. The other factor was the introduction, by George Eastman, of small cameras in use at that time. Thus, convenient cameras gave photojournalists the freedom to record news events easily and quickly. The technological advancement enabled them to also take pictures which were previously impossible to take such as night and moving images. One of the foremost photojournalist was a Frenchman, Henri Cartier –Bresson, who from 1930 to 2004 worked to document what he called the “decisive moment”. Cartier-Bresson believed that the dynamics in any given situation eventually reach a peak, at which a photographer will capture the most powerful image possible.
Photojournalists have become visual interpreters, using their cameras and knowledge to bring readers a feeling of what an event was really like. Meanwhile, in the past, the photojournalist depended on artists to draw replicas of his photograph, which was later reproduced by an engraver into a Zinc plate, (Aliagan, 2006). The plate was then printed on a Hoe rotary press. Due to the long process, several days passed before these line-drawn renderings of photographs appeared on the front-page of the newspaper.
The growth of photography and photojournalism can be traced to two major factors that occurred near the end of the 19th century. The first is the technical innovation. This includes the invention of roll film, smaller cameras, faster lens and the perfection of the half tone process of printing photographs as a series of light and dark dots which allowed newspaper publishers to reproduce photographs quickly and inexpensively.
Photographs in Journalism inform, educate and enlighten readers about current issues and also reflect on the past as well. Photographs in Newspaper enhance the credibility of the stories. As they depict reality, they also furnish evidence to show the authenticity of a news story or give proof of an event that occurred. Its aesthetic values enable a photograph to serve as a tool to attract reader’s attention and break the monotony of news content. Thus, photographs enhance and beautify the pages of a newspaper (Gervais, 2005). Beyond the active construction in the creation of the image in front of the camera, photo editing in programs like Adobe Photoshop are almost roundly rejected by ethics in photojournalism. This issue can be debated, but standard photo post-production elements such as smoothing out wrinkles on a person's face, enhancing the colors of a location, or changing the contrast could all be considered clear violations of ethics in photojournalism. There have been many major cases in recent years of photojournalists being let go from major publications for the most minor alterations during photo editing. An example of this could be a color alteration to a photo where the sky color could be changed. This change in sky color could indicate or diminish the appearance of pollution, it could change the interpretation of the season, and it could even shift the perspective of the subjects (Bose, 2002). All of these changes would be the anti-thesis of the structure of the photojournalist project and would violate it on a critical level. Photo editing can be used in certain situations, but it should remain incredibly minor if it wants to fit the strict ethical standards that have been associated with photojournalism.
A photograph in Newspaper speaks more than a thousand words. No formal education is required to understand a picture. Photographs are therefore able to break through literacy barrier to effectively communicate a message. It is a universal language.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In newspaper photographs are suppose to draw a reader’s attention and communicate messages, but this days the reverse is the case most photograph in newspaper does not really pass messages, this research seeks to address the problem of the inefficiency of Newspapers to use News Pictures that effectively communicate a message or tell a story. On that note the problem that necessitated this study is: What are reader’s perceptions of the use of photograph in reinforcement of newspapers message
1.3 Objective of the Study
1. To investigate how news pictures are used in newspaper.
2. To examine if photographs serve the function of information dissemination in newspaper.
3. How frequent do you see pictures in the Punch newspaper
4. To identify the various types of photographs used in newspaper
5. How photographs help to stir the emotions about certain event or person
1.4 Research Questions
1. Do the Punch newspaper use picture in reporting news?
2. Do photographs serve the function of information dissemination in newspaper?
3. Do you find pictures in Punch newspaper and how often?
4. What are the kind of photograph used in Punch newspaper?
5. To what extent do photographs stir emotions about certain event or person
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is designed to critically examine readers’ perception of the use of photograph in reinforcement of newspaper message, with particular reference to Punch newspaper. The study is narrowed to Auchi community in Etsako West L.G.A of Edo State inorder to examine reader’s perception, Auchi was however chosen because of proximity to place of study.