1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group Amuchie. (2012). In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high profile political campaigns are focused on candidates for head of state or head of government, often a president or prime minister. Amuchie. (2012)
Modern political campaigns have set new standards for how successful campaigns are conducted day-to-day. The campaign is conducted in what would seem to the public like pseudo-military style, with a strict chain of command, zero tolerance for certain prohibited actions, and an extended daily schedule that starts early and ends much later than most "day jobs". Prohibited actions may include, but are not limited to: lying about numbers generated (e.g. phone calls made, doors knocked, volunteers recruited, etc.) - this is increasingly an issue in offices that are wirelessly connected, without direct oversight; going outside the chain of command (e.g. talking to a superior's superior who happens to be a friend in order to get special favors or report information); non-press-shop members talking to the press; blogging (considered another form of "talking to the press", which can interfere with message discipline); and being arrested (or otherwise becoming a potential easy target for opponent smear campaigns) Robert J. Dinkin (1989).
The daily schedule of a political campaign is hyperextended, and often has no definite beginning or end, only a series of tasks to be completed by certain benchmark times, or, most often, "COB" ("Close of Business"). COB for political campaigns is generally defined as "the time at night at which your supervisor is required to report his/her numbers" (or shortly beforehand), so that your numbers reporting (generally the last action a political campaigner takes before COB) can be factored into theirs Richard Jensen (1999). For example, a field organizer may have collected 9 new committed volunteers for an event during the day; he will be required to report this at 8:45pm to his regional field director, so that the regional can report that all field organizers in the region recruited 52 total volunteers for said event; which needs to be reported to the deputy state field director by 9:00, so that THEY can speak to the state field director at 9:15 and report that 827 volunteers have been recruited for events around the state; and so on, up the chain of command.
Once each of these reporting sequences is finished, organizers at all levels may do paperwork, send emails, call friends, and do other things which are not effective to do during business hours or "voter contact time". Political campaigns are generally about contacting voters and volunteers at the nuts-and-bolts level; and so dependent on state law, local peculiarities and the preferences of campaign organizers and volunteers, a certain block of time (usually ending at 8pm or 9pm) is set aside each night for "voter/volunteer contact" Richard Jensen (1999). (Violation of this block of time to conduct other activities often cannot happen or needs a strong justification, such as attending an important meeting.) Only a very small fraction of campaign workers (such as people who deal with vendors) do the bulk of their work during traditional business hours Richard Jensen (1999).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The role of mass media in every society is often to educate, inform and enlighten. It is assumed that, where those roles are adequately carried out, elections are bound to be free and fair. However, in Nigeria, several elections have been married. The question is how the Nigeria mass media has influence the Nigerian populace during political campaign. How come electoral processes have not been successful, is the mass media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere? This and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this report is therefore to A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high profile political campaigns are focused on candidates for head of state or head of government, often a president or prime minister.
provide the role of mass media in political campaign. This study will analyze the role of mass media in the 2007 elections, highlighting the ways in which the key election stakeholders utilized mass media during the election. The task of this study is divided into six sections. Following this introduction is the second section that explores the meaning, attributes, and classifications of mass media.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project research focused specifically on the influence of Nigeria mass media on political campaign ( A study of the 2007 general election).
The significance of this report are as follows:
· The study indicated that mass media in electioneering aid credibility
· The study indicated that mass media can be used as tools to connect with voters and constituents
· To show that mass media has become a major election information sharing platform globally.
· It indicated that mass media act as a tool for improving the efficiency of election observation
· It enhanced transparency in the electoral process and made INEC more accountable to the public in the conduct of elections.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.
· Has mass media help in mobilizing the Nigerian populace?
· Is 2007 electoral processes successful?
· Is the mass media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere?