This study investigated the effects of motivation on job satisfaction of teacher librarians in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The study employed Hertzberg’s Theory as a framework for evaluating motivation and job satisfaction of teacher librarians in FCT. The entire population of teacher librarians from all secondary schools within the FCT was used. The population consisted of 164 teacher librarians, 80 from government schools and 84 from the private schools. Two (2) research questions were formulated to guide the researcher. Both were analyzed using simple percentages, represented on tables and graphically illustrated. In the same vein, one (1) hypothesis was also formulated to guide the researcher. The use of survey method was adopted in carrying out this study. The instrument used for the study was the questionnaire method which was divided into three sections. Section 1 dealt with social demographic data, section 2 dealt with information on motivational packages while section 3 sampled for information items on factors of job satisfaction. Responses on the questionnaire were in line with five point Likert scale type rating scale and analyzed descriptively. Data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS package and tables with graphic illustrations. The result of the study revealed that teacher librarians are satisfied with the motivational facilities provided within the schools. However, the findings also revealed that teacher librarians were not motivated with the areas of sponsorship and the incentives provided. Similarly, the teacher librarian also indicated high level of job satisfaction with personnel interaction, in the area of institution and environmental factors as well as interpersonal relationship, there was however, no significant relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of teacher librarian within the FCT. It was recommended that the application of motivational factors for enhancing teacher librarian performance in the secondary school should be increased and sustained since it was found to increase their level of job satisfaction in this study among other recommendations.
2.4 Relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction................................................ 20
2.5 Application of Motivation Theories to Staff Performance........................................... 21
1.1 Background to the Study
The elementary school years are of considerable consequence for shaping achievement of children (Okebukola & Owolabi 2008). Children at this level experience learning far more with printed books. It is within the formative years that children can be easily motivated to learn. At the secondary school level, instruction specifically places more emphasis on learning content in academic subject areas. It is therefore imperative to develop both the skill and the will to read for students to develop into mature and effective readers to be able to cope with advanced reading and scientific skills required at the secondary school level. Several scholars have contributed greatly to literature on matters pertaining to African students and literacy. Their recommendations are for better teachers, better textbooks, smaller classes, reformed curricula, better teacher remuneration, new political visions or changed attitudes (Abel 2003; Okebukola 2008; Warwick, 1999). As noted by Warwick (1999), all of these solutions have their place but most are impractical in the short run. They cost too much or they depend on social or political change, which will take generations to bring out. Nigerians need practical solutions and research continues to play a contributory role, since the problem still persists.
To find a possible solution to the problem, there is a need to approach the problem from the perspective of teacher-librarian since the task of effecting this change on children falls on them. Perhaps if they perform their duties efficiently this problem might not have arisen in the first place. In order to increase the literacy level of school children in FCT, teacher- librarians must be motivated so that they are satisfied with their jobs.
In Nigeria, the Nigerian School Library Association (NSLA) has recommended that the designation “school librarians” be used for professionals, para-professionals and teacher librarians appointed to run school libraries. Such a person should have a minimum qualification of Diploma in Library Studies at Primary Schools and a Bachelor‟s degree in Secondary schools. A background in education is also considered relevant.
Teaching and learning could be regarded as twin concepts or as the two sides of a coin that complement each other. Teaching takes place only when learning has taken place. For effective learning to take place, certain conditions must be met, such as environmental factors, people factors, equipment factors, information (textbooks, charts, formulas) and problem definition and time (task duration) of these factors. The one relating to information seeking becomes more important as it is indispensable to the teaching and learning process. This has led to the library being one of the important constituents of education – the Teacher –the Taught and – the Learning process.
Motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. Motivating other people is about getting them to move in a certain direction in order to achieve a desired result. Today, concepts of social class often assume three general categories: a very wealthy and powerful upper class that owns and controls the means of production; a middle class of professional workers, small business owners, and low-level managers; and a lower class, which rely on low-paying wage jobs for their livelihood and often experience poverty. Until recently, employee interests and needs have been neglected and their personal development goals put at a back stage. What perhaps may have changed this ironical way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies,
conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results. Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation and that shall form the basis of the theoretical review are Maslow‟s need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg‟s two- factor theory, Vroom‟s expectancy theory, Adams‟ equity theory, and Skinner‟s reinforcement theory.
Motivation, in specific terms, is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal. Hence, motivated behaviours are voluntary choices controlled by the individual. But Herzberg„s Two-Factor Theory (1987) concentrates on the effect of motivation on the employees. It describes needs in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Frederick Herzberg (1987) examined motivation in the light of job content and context. According to him, motivating employees is a two-step process. First is to provide hygiene, and then later motivators. One continuum ranges from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The other continuum ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. Satisfaction comes from motivators that are intrinsic or job content, such as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, the work itself, and growth possibilities. Herzberg uses the term motivators for job satisfiers since they involve job content and the satisfaction that results from them. Motivators are considered job turn-ons. They are necessary for substantial improvements in work performance and move the employee beyond satisfaction to superior performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The process of teaching is a complex demand on the teacher librarian, the parent, the society and the employee. As a facilitator in the learning process, it is the responsibility of the teacher librarian to provide the specialized collection needed with the aim of achieving the school‟s objectives. Edoka (2000) asserted that the responsibility of the teacher-librarians dwell on activities happening in the school libraries and the school library is an educational institution that supports the educational work of their parent institutions. The teacher-librarian motivates the students to study their book along their curriculum, guides and assists them in selection and acquisition of book, makes him/herself aware of the materials available in the school library and beyond, participates amongst others in the designing of their school curriculum, gives the students assignment that can be carried out in the library.
Children in the FCT and indeed Nigeria lack opportunities for catching up to the rest of the world in terms of satisfying employees as a result of their low literacy levels and limited horizons. There is also no contending the fact that improvements of literacy levels in schools throughout Africa pose a serious challenge requiring urgent intervention (Abel 2003; Bamhare 1999; Okebukola 2007; Warwick 1999). Onukaogu (2001) provides an excellent overview of the poor state of literacy and minimal experience of print immersion compared with children in the developed world in FCT schools.
Several scholars have contributed greatly to the research literature on matters pertaining to African students and literacy. Their recommendations are for better teachers, better textbooks, smaller classes, reformed curricula, better teacher remuneration, new political visions or changed attitudes (Abel 2003; Okebukola 2008; Warwick, 1999). As noted by Warwick (1999), all of these solutions have their place but most are impractical in the short run. They cost too much or they depend on social or political change, which will take generations to bring out. Nigerians need practical solutions and research continues to play a contributory role, since the problem still persists.
To reduce the falling literacy level of school children, there is a need to explore the problem from the perspective of the role of teacher-librarians. For the teacher librarians to perform effectively and efficiently, they have to be committed to their jobs, in other words, they have to be satisfied with their jobs.
This study investigates the effect of motivation on job satisfaction among the FCT teacher librarians using Herzberg‟s Dual factor theory as a framework.
1.3 Research Questions
The research questions formulated to guide the investigations were as follows:
1. To what extent do motivational factors affect job satisfaction of teacher librarians in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja?
2. What is the extent of job satisfaction of teacher librarians in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja?
1.4 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis was formulated to guide the study:
1. There is no significant relationship between motivation and the job satisfactions of teacher librarians in the FCT, Abuja.
1.5 Objectives of the study
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of motivation on the job satisfaction of teacher librarian in the FCT. Specifically however, the objectives were to:
1. determine the extent of teacher librarian job satisfaction in FCT, Abuja.
2. determine the extent of job satisfaction of teacher librarians in FCT, Abuja.
This study will be significant in the following ways. It will be of great benefit to the FCT Secondary Education Board (SEB), The Education Resources Centre (ERC), school administrations and the nation as a whole. It is believed that motivation affects performance, hence, when motivational tools are properly put in place, will result in increase in staff performance and an increase in satisfaction.
This study will also enable the FCT Education Board and other education stakeholders use the outcome of this study for planning and evaluating impact of motivation and job satisfaction on educational programmes. Other researchers can also use the outcome for further studies and investigations.
It is hoped that the findings arising from this study if successfully implemented by the Education Resources Centre and School Proprietors, would lead to increase in motivation and improve the level of job satisfaction of teacher librarians. This will also translate to enhanced school / academic performance within the FCT.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study target area is FCT, Abuja. The subjects of the study are only teacher librarians and the population of the teacher librarians will be drawn from the six area councils, covering government and private secondary schools within the FCT. This population will be used to generalize the impact of motivation and job satisfaction of the teacher librarians within the FCT.