This study titled, “Application of Elements of Knowledge Management to Evaluation of Students’ Performance in Colleges of Education in North-West Geopolitical Zone in Nigeria”, applied the four elements of knowledge management to evaluation of students’ performance in Colleges of Education in North West Geopolitical Zone, Nigeria. The study formulated four objectives, four research questions and four (4) null hypotheses. Related literatures were reviewed on application of knowledge creation and capture; knowledge sharing and enrichment; knowledge storage and retrieval; and knowledge dissemination in organizations. A descriptive survey design was used from a sample of 1916 obtained through cluster sampling. A self structured questionnaire was used as instrument for collecting data which was validated by experts and administered by the researcher. Frequency counts and simple parentages were used in analyzing respondents’ opinions while ANOVA and scheffe’s test were used in testing the hypotheses. Three hypotheses (1-3) were rejected while hypothesis four was retained. The findings of this work revealed that all the four elements of knowledge management were applied to evaluation of students’ performance in continuous assessment, final examination and teaching practice result. It was also found that knowledge creation and capture and knowledge sharing and retrieval were applied mostly while knowledge storage and retrieval and knowledge dissemination were least applied. Findings also revealed non applicability of the elements to moderation of marked scripts, observation of students’ results, students’ continuous assessment, teaching practice and final examinations. The study recommended that a three week programme be organized for newly employed or inexperienced lecturers at the beginning of each semester on how to apply the elements of knowledge management in evaluating students. All results be centralized for access by other departments. Central e-mail examination board be provided. Students and lecturers be made to open e-mail addresses. Website be created and made available for all, adequate facilities be provided for effective use of e-mails, data bases and website. Computer literacy be enforced on lecturers and other stakeholders.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Objectives of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Conceptual framework
2.2.1 Concept of Knowledge
2.2.2 Concept of Management
2.2.3 Concept of Knowledge Management
2.2.4 Concept of Evaluation
2.3 Application of Knowledge Creation and Capture in an Organization
Application of Knowledge sharing and Enrichment in an Organization
Application of Information Storage and Retrieval in an Organization
Application of knowledge Dissemination in an Organization
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Methods of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA
Presentation and Interpretation of Data
Discussion of the Findings
Summary of Major Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study
Application of Knowledge Creation and Capture to Evaluation
of Students‟ Performance
Application of Knowledge Sharing and Enrichment to Evaluation
of Students‟ Performance
Application of Knowledge Storage and Retrieval to Evaluation
of Students‟ Performance
Application of Knowledge Dissemination to Evaluation of
Suggestions for Further Studies
Limitations of the Study
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
In any organization, members only become productive when the less experienced are mentored, instructed and guided by the experienced ones. Thus, the progress of organization requires competent and dedicated experienced hands who could impart the necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to others. This is not possible without knowledge, which is a basis for change process. Change brings about increase in work participation where fatigue could be reduced drastically. It offers an individual member of organization opportunity to reason and contribute greatly in all activities within the organization.
The progress of any organization cannot be possible without preserving, sharing and developing the organizational skills and knowledge. Skills and knowledge are the bases for change in any organization. It is, therefore, necessary for skills and knowledge to be shared for the sustenance of organizational values. This is attainable through group discussion, internal meetings, interaction with people within and outside the organization, seminars, workshops, conferences and community of practice. This calls for knowledge management, which entails identification, within the organization, who knows what is needed so that proper placement, training and use of knowledge could be made.
Knowledge management is all about knowledge identification, capture, application, sharing, storage, re-use and integration. Knowledge management is geared towards enhancing performance of members, competition, innovation, sharing of ideas, integration and sustainability in organizational performance. It is also aimed at improving the quality of people‟s contributions to their organization and to make them responsible, cooperative, ready to share what they know and learn, effective in challenging, negotiating and learning from others. This provides avenues for critical issues to be examined for the survival and competence of the organization. Knowledge management is a process geared towards the achievement of organizational goals using the data and information processing capacity of information technologies, creative and innovative capacity of human beings. It can be seen as a mixture or combination of information technology and human innovation. This involves a range of strategies and practices used solely in an organization to identify, create, represent and distribute knowledge insights embodied in individuals or embedded in the organization as whole as a process or practice.
Knowledge management refers to the systematic management of process by which knowledge is identified, created, gathered, shared and applied (Benjamins, 2001). In addition, knowledge management is identified as comprising a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, present, distribute and enable adoption of insights and experiences that comprise knowledge which are embodied in individual or embedded in organizations as processes or practices. From the two definitions above, it could be concluded by the present study that the four elements of knowledge management that include: knowledge creation and capture; knowledge sharing and enrichment; information storage and retrieval; and knowledge dissemination as applied in business organizations could equally be applied in evaluation of students‟ performance. This may be possible since through innovations new ideas are created and acquired by students after which the captured ideas could be shared among themselves through group discussions, tutorials or seminar presentations that could lead to adoption, application or presentation of such knowledge after graduation. It could equally improve on students‟ capability and ease assessment on the part of lecturers of Colleges of Education.
In essence, one of the most critical challenges to a knowledge society is to cultivate human capital with capacity to compete, innovate, create and share knowledge. This is one factor that motivated the current study, if these elements are applied to evaluation of students‟ performance, it could help in producing the caliber of students with above capacities who could be capable of competing with the outer world.
Knowledge management efforts focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization (Addicott, McGivern and Ferlie, 2006). In addition, the objectives of knowledge management is to improve the quality of the contributions people make to their organizations by helping them to make sense of the context within which the organization exists, to take responsibility, to cooperate and share what they know and learn, and to effectively challenge, negotiate and learn from others. Organizations have potentials to learn and that new knowledge may be effectively incorporated into specific practices, so that knowledge is accessible when needed (Zhou, 2009).
A complete knowledge management system contains the four elements: thus, knowledge creation and capture; knowledge sharing and enrichment; information storage and retrieval; and knowledge dissemination. Knowledge is continually being created in any group, corporation or organizations since the very interaction among people is to generate knowledge. Creation of new knowledge will not be possible without creativity and innovation because they are most important skills needed to make the organization highly productive and competitive. This could also be incorporated into education sector so that effective delivery in teaching and learning could be captured and maintained to enable proper evaluation of students‟ performance by teachers in Colleges of Education.
The NCE programme being a major sector of teacher education, generally aimed at producing teachers with high personal and professional discipline and integrity, teacher who are dedicated with appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes that would facilitate easy achievement of the national goals spelt out in the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) minimum standard. This is however, stated in the NCCE (2008) that, by the end of NCE programme at Colleges of Education, students should be able to:
discuss intelligently the main ideas that have affected and still affect the development and practice of education generally and in Nigeria in particular; examine the main psychological, health and socioeconomic factors that may help or hinder a child‟s educational performance; study learners appropriately to determine the most effective ways of remaining to them to ensure their maximum achievement; professionally combine use of conventional and ICT or other innovational instructional/learning strategies in generating and imparting knowledge, attitudes and skills; among others.
In order to achieve the above therefore, the NCCE minimum standard stipulated facilities, instructional materials and methods, mode of training in terms of subject specifications and boundaries, mode of admission into the colleges, provision of evaluation strategies and human resources, for effective achievement of set educational goals. Despite all its efforts in uplifting the standard of colleges of education, there is still out-cry in the area of evaluation of students‟ performance and this constitutes a serious
problem in Colleges of Education unless something is done. This inspired the present study to investigate on the application of element of knowledge management to evaluation of students‟ performance in the study area.
By implication, this research is inspired by the benefits of application of elements of knowledge management in organizations (Colleges of Education). Thus, the study presents the application of the elements of knowledge management to evaluation of students‟ performance in Colleges of Education in North-West geo-political zone in Nigeria. The present study seeks to find out whether the application of the elements of knowledge management to evaluation of students‟ performance in the study area could enable the sustenance of knowledge through knowledge creation and capture, knowledge sharing and enrichment, information storage and retrieval and knowledge destination. This calls for a study to investigate the application of elements of knowledge management to evaluation of students‟ performance.
Teaching is a systematic, rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles and takes place in an organized structural environment, (Ejili & Anyanwu, 2006). It involves overall intention of getting students not only to acquire knowledge, skills and modes of conduct but also to acquire them in a manner which involves understanding and evaluation of the learners. In a similar assertion, Mkpa (2009), views teaching as a process of giving instruction to impart knowledge, facts, skills, attitudes, interests and aptitude to unknowledgeable and inexperienced individual. So, through the elements of knowledge management those knowledge, facts, skills e.t.c given to an in experience person could be evaluated to ascertain its effectiveness.
Learning on the other hand is acquiring new, or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Learning produces changes in an organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent. Going by this definition, it could be added that learners acquire and capture the new and modify the existing knowledge from the teaching they received. It is through effective teaching and learning given by lecturers that appropriate evaluation strategies could be employed.
Evaluation is the process of assessing an individual‟s understanding of what he/she was taught. It could be formative or summative. Evaluation could also be the process of administering test or examination for the learner. That is to say, the evaluation of learning should focus on important factors using a number of assessment methods or techniques to arrive at a score or judgement in respect of the learner‟s ability, attitudes and progress. It also stresses the use of multiple assessment techniques, peer and self assessment by the learners and assessment that is systematic continuous diagnostic and integrative.
Considering currency of knowledge management in the world, this work is inspired by the global need to achieve economic strength based on education as the fundamental of knowledge. Since knowledge is the backbone of any economy, there is the need to manage it well through the application of the four elements of knowledge management. General competitiveness of an organization and the renewal of knowledge become necessary in educational sector especially in the aspect of students‟ evaluation in Colleges of Education in the North-West geo-political zone in Nigeria. Therefore, the present study would find out the possibility of applying the elements of knowledge management to evaluation of students‟ performance in the study area.