1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Critical economic and environmental situations of the current days encourage companies and researchers to develop and improve technologies intended to reduce or minimize industrial wastes. As a consequence, much effort has been expended in different areas, including the agricultural production. Rice is the second largest produced cereal in the world. It was reported that the production is geographically concentrated in Asia with more than 90 percent of world output.  The United States and Brazil are the most important non-Asian producers and Italy ranks first in Europe. The rice world production was approximately 400 million tons of milled rice.  In most varieties rice is composed by approximately 20 % of rice hull, which contains a fibrous materials and silica; however the amount of each component depends on the climate and geographic location of rice crop. Therefore, due to its high percentage in the grain composition, the hull is considered a by-product in the mills and creates disposal and pollution problems.
Burning rice hull as a fuel substitute in order to generate energy is a useful solution which is used by many industries; however it results in a new waste, named rice husk ash (RHA). This residual ash obtained from the combustion can contain over 60 % of silica and some amount of metallic impurities. Depending on the burning process, RHA can contain silica in the amorphous form; therefore, this residue can be considered as a new economically viable raw material to produce detergent. 
India has a major agribusiness sector which has achieved remarkable successes over the last three and a half decades. Agricultural waste or residue is made up of organic compounds from organic sources such as rice straw, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, and others. Rice husk from paddy (Oryza sativa) is one example of alternative material that has a great potential. Rice husk a major by-product of the rice milling industry, is one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feed stocks through a variety of thermo chemical conversion processes. Rice husk is an agricultural residue abundantly available in rice producing countries. The husk surrounds the paddy grain. During milling of paddy about 78 % of weight is received as rice, broken rice and bran. Rest 22 % of the weight of paddy is received as husk.  This husk is used as fuel in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. This husk contains about 75 % organic volatile matter and the balance 25 % of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash. This RHA in turn contains around 85 % - 90 % amorphous silica. The moisture content ranged from 8·68 to 10·44%, and the bulk density ranged from 86 to 114 kg/ m3. 
Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92 to 95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high external surface area. Its absorbent and insulating properties are useful to many industrial applications, such as acting as a strengthening agent in building materials. Rice husks are processed into rectangular shaped particle boards.
This latter has the advantage over the first one because it is less expensive and uses water as the solvent. Sodium silicate solutions (commercially called sodium water-glass) are complex mixtures of silicate anions and polymer silicate particles especially when silica module (SiO2: Na2O molar ratio) is >2. The manufacture process of sodium silicates is generally considered expensive due to the energy required to reach high temperatures during the calcinations stages, in addition to producing considerable air pollution by emission of dust, nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Although this calcinations process is widely used in industrial scale, there is another process based on the reaction of silica with aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in autoclave. This latter one has an advantage when compared with the conventional calcinations process as it requires less energy.
1.1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will cover the qualitative and quantitative analysis that is involved in the production of detergent from rice paddy (husk ash).
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The present study has been designed to evaluate the production of detergent from rice paddy hull (husk ash).
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significance because it shows that:
• Rice husk is a widely available agricultural waste India produces around 25 million tons of Rice Husk
• It is largely used as a detergent• Rice husk contains 20 % ash and leaves large amount